Vietnamese

Vietnamese (old annamsky , annamitsky language ) refers to the Viet myongskoy branches austroaziatskoy language family. Vietnamese is spoken by the Vietnamese (who call themselves ” throw “, ” Vietnamese “) , the main population of the multinational Vietnam, bordered on the north by China and the West – with Laos and Cambodia. Vietnamese are also common in Cambodia ( 280 thousand people), Thailand ( 100 thousand people), Laos (20 thousand people ), the U.S. (about 1 million) , France, Canada , and Australia. The total number of speakers – more than 80 million people. In Vietnam, Vietnamese is the official language and the language of international communication.

Vietnam near Muong language , from which supposedly separated in 8-10 centuries . Among Vietnamese – language myongskih stands complete the process monosillabizatsii ( falling away first syllable of historically -syllable units), the greater the number of colors (up to 6 colors in the northern dialects ) , lack nachalnoslogovyh consonant clusters , less inventory konechnoslogovyh consonants. In the lexicon of a large stratum of Chinese loans belonging to different historical periods . Prolonged contact with pratayskimi peoples led to the existence of general vocabulary formation , in this connection in the early 20th century. A hypothesis about the relationship Viet myongskih and Thai languages ​​. Vietnamese is a tonal Typologically monosillabicheskim ( morpheme boundaries usually coincide with the boundaries of the syllable ) insulation ( grammatical relations are expressed mainly by word order and auxiliary words ) language.

Number of colors varies in different dialects, from 4 to 6. In syllables ending in voiceless stops , can be realized only two colors. Maximum size of a syllable : ” semi-vowel + consonant + vowel + consonant .” The vowels are monophthongs and diphthongs . There are only two pairs of vowels that differ in longitude / shorts : ā – a and – . Occlusive konechnoslogovye implosive consonants ( not completed explosion ), which is typical in many languages ​​of the area of South- East Asia. Word formation is korneslozheniem , repeats ( full or partial ) , affixes Chinese origin. Vietnamese morphologically characterized by a lack of inflection and analytical forms. Significant parts of speech are divided into names and predicatives , including verbs and adjectives . The order of words in a simple sentence : ” subject – verb – complement » (SVO). The definition generally follows the determined , classifiers ( counting words ) occupy a position between the numeral and the noun .

There are four main dialectal areas: the Beibu (North Vietnam ) , North Chungbo (central Vietnam ) , South Chungbo , Nam Bo (southern Vietnam ) . Dialects differ mainly phonetically ( of tones – from 4 to 6, supplies phonemes ) and lexically . In the 2-1 centuries . BC ancestors of the Vietnamese were conquered by the Chinese and were under their rule until the 10th c. , so for many centuries, the official writing and literary language in Vietnam was a Chinese . At the heart of the modern literary dialect of Vietnamese is the Hanoi dialect Beibu .

Vietnam – the language of the old written tradition . Until the early 20th century. was the spread of Chinese writing , and hieroglyphic writing ” Chi – rated ” dates from the 14th century. on the basis of written Chinese . In 1910 he founded the Portuguese missionaries introduced ( 17th c. ) Based on the Latin alphabet – ” quoc – ngy “, in which the tones are indicated accented icons , each syllable on the letter is separated by a space.